Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)


3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2023
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation Basis of Presentation — The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) for interim financial information. Management believes it has made all necessary adjustments (consisting of only normal recurring items) such that the condensed consolidated financial statements are presented fairly and that estimates made in preparing the condensed consolidated financial statements are reasonable and prudent. The operating results presented for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any other interim period or for the entire year. The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company, its wholly owned or majority-owned subsidiaries and entities in which the Company is deemed to have a direct or indirect controlling financial interest based on either a variable interest model or voting interest model. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited consolidated and combined financial statements included in its annual report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).
Principles of Consolidation Principles of Consolidation — The Company consolidates entities in which it has a controlling financial interest by first considering if an entity meets the definition of a variable interest entity (“VIE”) for which the Company is deemed to be the primary beneficiary, or if the Company has the power to control an entity through a majority of voting interest or through other arrangements.
Variable Interest Entities Variable Interest Entities — A VIE is consolidated by its primary beneficiary, which is defined as the party who has a controlling financial interest in the VIE through (a) power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly affect the VIE’s economic performance, and (b) obligation to absorb losses or right to receive benefits of the VIE that could be significant to the VIE. The Company also considers interests held by its related parties, including de facto agents. The Company may perform a related party analysis to assess whether it is a member of a related party group that collectively meets the power and benefits criteria and, if so, whether the Company is most closely associated with the VIE. In performing the related party analysis, the Company considers both qualitative and quantitative factors, including, but not limited to: the amount and characteristics of its investment relative to the related party; the Company’s and the related party’s ability to control or significantly influence key decisions of the VIE including consideration of involvement by de facto agents; the obligation or likelihood for the Company or the related party to fund operating losses of the VIE; and the similarity and significance of the VIE’s business activities to those of the Company and the related party. The determination of whether an entity is a VIE, and whether the Company is the primary beneficiary, may involve significant judgment, including the determination of which activities most significantly affect the entities’ performance, and estimates about the current and future fair values and performance of assets held by the VIE.
Voting Interest Entities Voting Interest Entities — Unlike VIEs, voting interest entities have sufficient equity to finance their activities and equity investors exhibit the characteristics of a controlling financial interest through their voting rights. The Company consolidates such entities when it has the power to control these entities through ownership of a majority of the entities’ voting interests or through other arrangements. At each reporting period, the Company reassesses whether changes in facts and circumstances cause a change in the status of an entity as a VIE or voting interest entity, and/or a change in the Company’s consolidation assessment. Changes in consolidation status are applied prospectively. An entity may be consolidated as a result of this reassessment, in which case, the assets, liabilities and non-controlling interest in the entity are recorded at fair value upon initial consolidation. Any existing equity interest held by the Company in the entity prior to the Company obtaining control will be remeasured at fair value, which may result in a gain or loss recognized upon initial consolidation. The Company may also deconsolidate a subsidiary as a result of this reassessment, which may result in a gain or loss recognized upon deconsolidation depending on the carrying values of deconsolidated assets and liabilities compared to the fair value of any interests retained.
Non-controlling Interests
Non-controlling Interests — Non-controlling interests represent the share of consolidated entities owned by third parties. Bridge recognizes each non-controlling shareholder’s respective ownership at the estimated fair value of the net assets at the date of formation or acquisition. Non-controlling interests are subsequently adjusted for the non-controlling shareholder’s additional contributions, distributions and their share of the net earnings or losses of each respective consolidated entity. Net income is allocated to non-controlling interests based on the ownership interest during the period. The net income that is not attributable to Bridge is reflected in net income attributable to non-controlling interests in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income and shareholders’ equity.
Non-controlling interests include non-controlling interests attributable to Bridge and non-controlling interests attributable to the Operating Company. Non-controlling interests attributable to the Operating Company represent third-party equity interests in the Operating Company subsidiaries related to general partner and fund manager equity interests as well as profits interests awards. Non-controlling interests attributable to Bridge include equity interests in the Operating Company owned by third-party investors. Non-controlling interests in the Operating Company are adjusted to reflect third-party investors’ ownership percentage in the Operating Company at the end of the period, through a reallocation between controlling and non-controlling interest in the Operating Company, as applicable.
Use of Estimates Use of Estimates — The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Management believes that estimates utilized in the preparation of the condensed consolidated financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Such estimates include those used in the valuation of investments, which directly affect accrued performance allocations and related compensation, the carrying amount of the Company's equity method investments, the measurement of deferred tax balances (including valuation allowances), and the accounting for goodwill, all of which involve a high degree of judgement and complexity and may have a significant impact on net income. Actual results could differ from those estimates and such differences could be material.Global markets are experiencing continued volatility driven by weakening U.S. fundamentals, rising geopolitical risks in Europe, ongoing economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, softening growth in Asia, global supply chain disruptions, labor shortages, rising commodity prices, availability of debt financing in the capital markets, high inflation and increasing interest rates. As a result, management’s estimates and assumptions may be subject to a higher degree of variability and volatility that may result in material differences from the current period.
Cash and Cash Equivalents Cash and Cash Equivalents — The Company considers all cash on hand, demand deposits with financial institutions and short-term highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents are financial instruments that are exposed to concentrations of credit risk. Cash balances may be invested in money market accounts that are not insured. The Company holds and invests its cash with high-credit quality institutions in amounts that regularly exceed the amount insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation for a single financial institution. However, the Company has not realized any losses in such cash investments or accounts and believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk.
Restricted Cash Restricted Cash — Restricted cash primarily consists of a collateral trust account for the benefit of the insurance carriers associated with Bridge Investment Group Risk Management, Inc. (“BIGRM”). These funds are held as collateral for the insurance carriers in the event of a claim that would require a high deductible payment from BIGRM.
Marketable Securities Marketable Securities — The Company’s marketable securities are classified as trading securities and reported at fair value, with changes in fair value recognized through realized and unrealized gains (losses) in other income (expense). Fair value is based on quoted prices for identical assets in active markets. Realized gains and losses are determined on the basis for the actual cost of the securities sold. Dividends on equity securities are recognized as income when declared.
Fair Value
Fair Value — GAAP establishes a hierarchical disclosure framework that prioritizes the inputs used in measuring financial instruments at fair value into three levels based on their market price observability. Market price observability is affected by a number of factors, including the type of instrument and the characteristics specific to the instrument. Financial instruments with readily available quoted prices from an active market or for which fair value can be measured based on actively quoted prices generally have a higher degree of market price observability and a lesser degree of judgment inherent in measuring fair value.
Financial assets and liabilities measured and reported at fair value are classified as follows:
Level 1 — Pricing inputs are unadjusted, quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities as of the measurement date.
Level 2 — Quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in inactive markets; and model-derived valuations with directly or indirectly observable significant inputs. Level 2 inputs include prices in markets with few transactions, non-current prices, prices for which little public information exists or prices that vary substantially over time or among brokered market makers. Level 2 inputs include interest rates, yield curves, volatilities, prepayment risks, loss severities, credit risks and default rates.
Level 3 — Valuations that rely on one or more significant unobservable inputs. These inputs reflect the Company’s assessment of the assumptions that market participants would use to value the instrument based on the best information available.
In some instances, an instrument may fall into more than one level of the fair value hierarchy. In such instances, the instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest of the three levels (with Level 3 being the lowest) that is significant to the fair value measurement. The Company’s assessment of the significance of an input requires judgment and considers factors specific to the instrument. The Company accounts for the transfer of assets into or out of each fair value hierarchy level as of the beginning of the reporting period. Refer to Note 7, “Fair Value Measurements” for additional information.
Fair Value Option Fair Value Option — The fair value option provides an option to elect fair value as a measurement alternative for selected financial instruments. Refer to Note 7, “Fair Value Measurements” for additional information. The fair value option may be elected only upon the occurrence of certain specified events, including when the Company enters into an eligible firm commitment, at initial recognition of the financial instrument, as well as upon a business combination or consolidation of a subsidiary. The election is irrevocable unless a new election event occurs. The Company elected the fair value option for the General Partner Notes Payable (as defined in Note 13). The carrying value of the General Partner Notes Payable represents the related General Partner lenders’ net asset value (“NAV”), in the respective fund and the General Partner lenders are entitled to receive distributions and carried interest. The NAV changes over time so marking the General Partner Notes Payable to fair value reflect these changes.
Receivables and Note Receivable from Affiliates
Receivables and Notes Receivable from Affiliates — Receivables consist principally of amounts due from the funds and other affiliates. These include receivables associated with fund or asset management fees, property management fees and other fees. Additionally, the Company is entitled to reimbursements and/or recovers certain costs paid on behalf of the private funds managed by the Company and related properties operated by the Company, which include: (i) organization and offering costs associated with the formation and offering; (ii) direct and indirect operating costs associated with managing the operations of the properties; and (iii) costs incurred in performing investment due diligence. During the normal course of business, the Company makes short-term uncollateralized loans to the funds for asset acquisition and working capital.
The Company also has notes receivable with employees to purchase an equity interest in the Company or its affiliates or managed funds. Interest income is recognized based upon contractual interest rate and unpaid principal balance of the loans. Loan fees on originated loans are deferred and amortized as adjustments to interest income over the expected life of the loans using the effective yield method.
The Company facilitates the payments of these fees, which are recorded as receivables, principally from affiliated parties on the condensed consolidated balance sheets, until such amounts are repaid. The Company assesses the collectability of such receivables considering the offering period, historical and forecasted capital raising, and establishes an allowance for any balances considered not collectible. None of the receivables were considered not collectible as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022.
Accrued Performance Allocations Accrued Performance Allocations — Performance allocations that are received in advance that remain subject to clawback are recorded as accrued performance allocations in the condensed consolidated balance sheets. The Company’s share of net income or loss may differ from the stated ownership percentage interest in an entity if the governing documents prescribe a substantive non-proportionate earnings allocation formula or a preferred return to certain investors. The Company’s share of earnings (losses) from equity method investments is determined using a balance sheet approach referred to as the hypothetical liquidation at book value (“HLBV”) method. Under the HLBV method, at the end of each reporting period the Company calculates the accrued performance allocations that would be due to the Company for each fund pursuant to the fund agreements as if the fair value of the underlying investments were realized as of such date, irrespective of whether such amounts have been realized. As the fair value of underlying investments varies between reporting periods, it is necessary to make adjustments to amounts recorded as accrued performance allocations to reflect either (a) positive performance resulting in an increase in the accrued performance allocation to the general partner, or (b) negative performance that would cause the amount due to the Company to be less than the amount previously recognized as revenue, resulting in a negative adjustment to the accrued performance allocation to the general partner. In each scenario, it is necessary to calculate the accrued performance allocation on cumulative results compared to the accrued performance allocation recorded to date and make the required positive or negative adjustments. The Company ceases to record negative performance allocations once previously accrued performance allocations for such fund have been fully reversed. The Company is not obligated to pay guaranteed returns or hurdles in this situation, and therefore, cannot have negative performance allocations over the life of a fund. The carrying amounts of equity method investments are reflected in accrued performance allocations on the condensed consolidated balance sheets as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, which are based on asset valuations one quarter in arrears.
Other Investments
Other Investments — A non-controlling, unconsolidated ownership interest in an entity may be accounted for using one of: (i) equity method where applicable; (ii) fair value option if elected; (iii) fair value through earnings if fair value is readily determinable, including election of NAV practical expedient where applicable; or (iv) for equity investments without readily determinable fair values, the measurement alternative to measure at cost adjusted for any impairment and observable price changes, as applicable.
Equity Method Investments
The Company accounts for investments under the equity method of accounting if it has the ability to exercise significant influence over the operating and financial policies of an entity but does not have a controlling financial interest. The equity method investment is initially recorded at cost and adjusted each period for capital
contributions, distributions and the Company’s share of the entity’s net income or loss as well as other comprehensive income or loss.
For certain equity method investments, the Company records its proportionate share of income on a one to three-month lag. Distributions of operating profits from equity method investments are reported as operating activities, while distributions in excess of operating profits are reported as investing activities in the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows under the cumulative earnings approach.
Changes in fair value of equity method investments are recorded as realized and unrealized gains (losses) in other income (expense) on the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
Impairment of Investments
Evaluation of impairment applies to equity method investments and equity investments under the measurement alternative. If indicators of impairment exist, the Company will estimate the fair value of its investment. In assessing fair value, the Company generally considers, among others, the estimated enterprise value of the investee or fair value of the investee’s underlying net assets, including net cash flows to be generated by the investee as applicable, and for equity method investees with publicly traded equity, the traded price of the equity securities in an active market.
For investments under the measurement alternative, if the carrying value of the investment exceeds its fair value, an impairment is deemed to have occurred.
For equity method investments, further consideration is made if a decrease in value of the investment is other-than-temporary to determine if impairment loss should be recognized. Assessment of other-than-temporary impairment involves management judgment, including, but not limited to, consideration of the investee’s financial condition, operating results, business prospects and creditworthiness, the Company’s ability and intent to hold the investment until recovery of its carrying value, or a significant and prolonged decline in traded price of the investee’s equity security. If management is unable to reasonably assert that an impairment is temporary or believes that the Company may not fully recover the carrying value of its investment, then the impairment is considered to be other-than-temporary.
Leases Leases — The Company determines whether an arrangement contains a lease at inception of the arrangement. A lease is a contract that provides the right to control an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration. For identified leases, the Company determines the classification as either an operating or finance lease. The Company primarily enters into operating lease agreements, as the lessee, for office space and certain equipment. Operating leases are included in other assets and other liabilities in the condensed consolidated balance sheet. Certain leases include lease and non-lease components, which the Company accounts for separately. Lease right of use (“ROU”) assets and lease liabilities are measured based on the present value of future minimum lease payments over the lease term at the commencement date. Leases may include options to extend or terminate the lease which are included in the ROU assets and lease liability when they are reasonably certain of exercise. Lease ROU assets are presented net of deferred rent and lease incentives. The Company uses its incremental borrowing rate based on information available at the inception date in determining the present value of future minimum lease payments. Operating lease expense associated with minimum lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term in general, administrative and other expenses in the condensed consolidated statements of income. Minimum lease payments for leases with an initial term of twelve months or less are not recorded in the condensed consolidated balance sheet. Refer to Note 17, “Commitments and Contingencies” for additional information.
Business Combinations
Business Combinations — The determination of whether an acquisition qualifies as an asset acquisition or business combination is an area that requires management’s use of judgment in evaluating the criteria of the screen test.
Definition of a Business — The Company evaluates each purchase transaction to determine whether the acquired assets meet the definition of a business. If substantially all of the fair value of gross assets acquired is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or a group of similar identifiable assets, then the set of transferred assets and activities is not a business. If not, for an acquisition to be considered a business, it would have to include an input and a substantive process that together significantly contribute to the ability to create outputs (i.e., there is a continuation of revenue before and after the transaction). A substantive process is not ancillary or minor, cannot be replaced without significant costs, effort or delay or is otherwise considered unique or scarce. To qualify as a
business without outputs, the acquired assets would require an organized workforce with the necessary skills, knowledge and experience that performs a substantive process.
Asset Acquisitions — For acquisitions that are not deemed to be businesses, the assets acquired are recognized based on their cost to the Company as the acquirer and no gain or loss is recognized. The cost of assets acquired in a group is allocated to individual assets within the group based on their relative fair values and does not give rise to goodwill. Transaction costs related to acquisition of assets are included in the cost basis of the assets acquired.
Acquisitions of Businesses — The Company accounts for acquisitions that qualify as business combinations by applying the acquisition method. Transaction costs related to acquisition of a business are expensed as incurred and excluded from the fair value of consideration transferred. The identifiable assets acquired, liabilities assumed and non-controlling interests in an acquired entity are recognized and measured at their estimated fair values. The excess of the fair value of consideration transferred over the fair values of identifiable assets acquired, liabilities assumed and non-controlling interests in an acquired entity, net of fair value of any previously held interest in the acquired entity, is recorded as goodwill. Such valuations require management to make significant estimates and assumptions.
Goodwill — Goodwill represents the excess amount of consideration transferred in a business combination above the fair value of the identifiable net assets. As of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the Company had goodwill of $234.6 million and $56.0 million, respectively. Refer to Note 8, “Business Combination and Goodwill” for additional information.
The Company performs its annual goodwill impairment test using a qualitative and, if necessary, a quantitative approach as of October 1, or more frequently, if events and circumstances indicate that an impairment may exist. Goodwill is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level. The initial assessment for impairment under the qualitative approach is to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the qualitative assessment indicates that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than the carrying amount, a quantitative assessment is performed to measure the amount of impairment loss, if any. The quantitative assessment includes comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recognized equal to the lesser of (a) the difference between the carrying amount of the reporting unit and its fair value and (b) the total carrying amount of the reporting unit’s goodwill. The Company performed its annual goodwill impairment assessment as of October 1, 2022, and determined that there was no impairment of goodwill.
The Company also tests goodwill for impairment in other periods if an event occurs or circumstances change such that it is more likely than not to reduce the fair value of the reporting unit below its carrying amount. Inherent in such fair value determinations are certain judgments and estimates relating to future cash flows, including the Company’s interpretation of current economic indicators and market valuations, and assumptions about the Company’s strategic plans with regard to its operations. Due to the uncertainties associated with such estimates, actual results could differ from such estimates.
Intangible Assets Intangible Assets — The Company’s finite-lived intangible assets consist primarily of acquired contractual rights to earn future management and advisory fee income. Intangible assets with a finite life are amortized based on the pattern in which the estimated economic benefits of the intangible asset on a straight-line basis, ranging from 4 to 14 years. Intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the intangible. If the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated future cash flows, an impairment charge is recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair value of the asset.
Revenue Recognition  Revenue Recognition — Revenues consist of fund management fees, property management and leasing fees, construction management fees, development fees, transaction fees, insurance premiums, fund administration fees and other asset management and property income. The Company recognizes revenue in a way that depicts the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The Company’s revenue is based on contracts with a determinable transaction price
and distinct performance obligations with probable collectability. Revenues are not recognized until the performance obligation(s) are satisfied.
Fund Management Fees — Fund management fees are generally based on a defined percentage of total commitments, invested capital or NAV of the investment portfolios managed by the Fund Managers. Following the expiration or termination of the investment period, the basis on which management fees are earned for certain closed-end funds and managed accounts, generally changes from committed capital to invested capital with no change in the management fee rate. The fees are generally based on a quarterly measurement period and amounts are paid in advance of recognizing revenue. Fund management fees are recognized as revenue in the period advisory services are rendered, subject to our assessment of collectability. Fund management fees also include management fees for joint ventures and separately managed accounts. For Company sponsored closed-end funds, the capital raising period is generally 18 to 24 months. The Fund Managers charge catch-up management fees to investors who subscribe in later closings in amounts equal to the fees they would have paid if they had been in the initial closing (plus interest as if the investor had subscribed in the initial closing). Catch-up management fees are recognized in the period in which the limited partner subscribes to the fund. Fund management fees are presented net of placement agent fees, where the Company is acting as an agent in the arrangement.
Property Management and Leasing Fees — Property management fees are earned as the related services are provided under the terms of the respective property management agreements. Included in management fees are certain expense reimbursements where the Company is considered the principal under the agreements and is required to record the expense and related reimbursement revenue on a gross basis. The Company also earns revenue associated with the leasing of commercial assets. The revenue is recognized upon the execution of the lease agreement.
Construction Management Fees — Construction management fees are earned as the services are provided under the terms of the property management agreement with each property.
Development Fees — Development fees are earned as the services are provided under the terms of the development agreement with each asset.
Transaction Fees — The Company earns transaction fees associated with the due diligence related to the acquisition of assets and financing of assets. The fees are recognized upon the acquisition of the asset or origination of the mortgage or other debt, as applicable.
Fund Administration Fees — The Company earns fund administration fees as services are provided under the terms of the respective fund administration agreement. Fund administration fees include a fixed annual amount plus a percentage of invested or deployed capital. Fund administration fees also include investor services fees which are based on an annual fee per investor. Fees are earned as services are provided and are recognized on a straight-line basis.
Insurance Premiums — BIGRM insures multifamily and commercial properties owned by the funds. BIGRM insures direct risks including lease security deposit fulfillment, lessor legal liability, workers compensation deductible, property deductible and general liability deductible reimbursements. Tenant liability premiums are earned monthly. Deposit eliminator premiums are earned in the month that they are written. Workers’ compensation and property deductible premiums are earned over the terms of the policy period.
Other Asset Management and Property Income — Other asset management and property income is comprised of, among other things, interest on catch-up management fees, fees related to in-house legal and tax professional fees, which is generally billed on an hourly rate to various funds and properties managed by affiliates of the Company, and other miscellaneous fees.
Investment Income Investment Income — Investment income is based on certain specific hurdle rates as defined in the applicable investment management agreements or fund or joint venture governing documents. Substantially all performance income is earned from funds and joint ventures managed by affiliates of the Company.
Incentive Fees — Incentive fees comprise fees earned from certain fund investor investment mandates for which the Company does not have a general partner interest in a fund. The Company recognizes incentive fee revenue only when these amounts are realized and no longer subject to significant reversal, which is typically at the end of a defined performance period and/or upon expiration of the associated clawback period.
Performance Allocations — The Company accounts for accrued performance obligations, which represents a performance-based capital allocation from a fund General Partner to the Company, as earnings from financial assets within the scope of Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 323, Investments—Equity Method and Joint Ventures. The underlying investments in the funds upon which the allocation is based reflect valuations on a three-month lag. The Company recognizes performance allocations as a separate revenue line item in the condensed consolidated statements of operations with uncollected carried interest as of the reporting date reported within accrued performance allocations on the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Carried interest is allocated to the Company based on cumulative fund performance to date, subject to the achievement of minimum return levels in accordance with the respective terms set out in each fund’s partnership agreement or other governing documents. At the end of each reporting period, a fund will allocate carried interest applicable to the Company based upon an assumed liquidation of that fund’s net assets on the reporting date, irrespective of whether such amounts have been realized. Carried interest is recorded to the extent such amounts have been allocated and may be subject to reversal to the extent that the amount allocated exceeds the amount due to the general partner based on a fund’s cumulative investment returns. Accordingly, the amount recognized as performance allocation revenue reflects our share of the gains and losses of the associated fund’s underlying investments measured at their then-fair values, relative to the fair values as of the end of the prior period.
As the fair value of underlying assets varies between reporting periods, it is necessary to make adjustments to amounts recorded as carried interest to reflect either (i) positive performance resulting in an increase in the carried interest allocated to the Company or (ii) negative performance that would cause the amount due to the Company to be less than the amount previously recognized as revenue, resulting in a reversal of previously recognized carried interest allocated to the Company. Accrued but unpaid carried interest as of the reporting date is recorded within accrued performance allocations compensation in the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Carried interest is realized when an underlying investment is profitably disposed of, and the fund’s cumulative returns are in excess of the specific hurdle rates as defined in the applicable investment management agreements or fund or joint venture governing documents. Since carried interest is subject to reversal, the Company may need to accrue for potential repayment of previously received carried interest. This accrual represents all amounts previously distributed to the Company that would need to be repaid to the funds if the funds were to be liquidated based on the current fair value of the underlying funds’ investments as of the reporting date. The actual repayment obligations, however, generally do not become realized until the end of a fund’s life.
Employee Compensation and Benefits Employee Compensation and Benefits — Employee compensation and benefits include salaries, bonus (including discretionary awards), related benefits, share-based compensation, and cost of processing payroll. Bonuses are accrued over the employment period to which they relate. Equity-classified awards granted to employees that have a service condition are measured at fair value at date of grant and remeasured at fair value only upon a modification of the award. The fair value of profits interests awards is determined using a Monte Carlo valuation at date of grant or date of modification when applicable. The fair value of Restricted Stock Units (“RSUs”) and Restricted Stock Awards is determined using the Company's closing stock price on the grant date or date of modification. The Company recognizes compensation expense over the requisite service period of the awards, with the amount of compensation expense recognized at the end of a reporting period at least equal to the fair value of the portion of the award that has vested through that date. Compensation expense is adjusted for actual forfeitures upon occurrence. Refer to Note 20, “Share-Based Compensation and Profits Interests,” for additional information.
Incentive Fees and Performance Allocations Compensation
Incentive Fees and Performance Allocations Compensation — The Company records incentive fee compensation when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount is reasonably estimable. The incentive fee compensation accrual is based on a number of factors, including the cumulative activity for the period and the expected timing of the distribution of the net proceeds in accordance with the applicable governing agreement.
A portion of the performance allocations earned is awarded to employees. The Company evaluates performance allocations to determine if they are compensatory awards or equity-classified awards based on the underlying terms of the award agreements on the grant date.
Performance allocations awards granted to employees and other participants are accounted for as a component of compensation and benefits expense contemporaneously with our recognition of the related realized and unrealized performance allocation revenue. Upon a reversal of performance allocation revenue, the related compensation expense, if any, is also reversed. Liabilities recognized for carried interest amounts due to affiliates are not paid until the related performance allocation revenue is realized.
Third-party Operating Expenses  Third-party Operating Expenses — Third-party operating expenses represent transactions, largely operation and leasing of assets, with third-party operators of real estate owned by the funds where the Company was determined to be the principal rather than the agent in the transaction.
Realized and Unrealized Gains (Losses)
Realized and Unrealized Gains (Losses) — Realized gains (losses) occur when the Company redeems all or a portion of an investment or when the Company receives cash income, such as dividends or distributions. Unrealized gains (losses) result from changes in the fair value of the underlying investment as well as from the reversal of previously recognized unrealized appreciation (depreciation) at the time an investment is realized. Realized and unrealized gains (losses) are presented together as realized gains (losses) in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
Finally, the realized and unrealized change in gains (losses) associated with the financial instruments that we elect the fair value option is also included in realized and unrealized gains (losses).
Income Taxes
Income Taxes — The Operating Company is treated as a pass-through entity for U.S. federal and state income tax purposes. As such, income generated by the Operating Company flows through to its members, including the Company, and is generally not subject to U.S. federal or state income tax at the level of the Operating Company. The Operating Company’s non-U.S. subsidiaries generally operate as corporate entities in non-U.S. jurisdictions, with certain of these entities subject to local or non-U.S. income taxes. Additionally, certain subsidiaries are subject to local jurisdiction taxes at the entity level, with the related tax provision reflected in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. As a result, the Operating Company does not generally record U.S. federal and state income taxes on its income or that of its subsidiaries, except for certain local and foreign income taxes discussed above.
Taxes are accounted for using the asset and liability method of accounting. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases, using tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income in the period when the change is enacted. The principal items giving rise to temporary differences are certain basis differences resulting from exchanges of units in the Operating Company.
Deferred income tax assets is primarily comprised of the TRA between the Operating Company and each of the Continuing Equity Owners and deferred income taxes related to the operations of Bridge Investment Group Risk Management, Inc. (“BIGRM”). Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The realization of deferred tax assets is dependent on the amount, timing and character of the Company’s future taxable income. When evaluating the realizability of deferred tax assets, all evidence – both positive and negative – is considered. This evidence includes, but is not limited to, expectations regarding future earnings, future reversals of existing temporary tax differences and tax planning strategies.
The Company is subject to the provisions of ASC Subtopic 740-10, Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes. This standard establishes consistent thresholds as it relates to accounting for income taxes. It defines the threshold for recognizing the benefits of tax return positions in the financial statements as more likely than not to be sustained by the relevant taxing authority and requires measurement of a tax position meeting the more likely than not criterion, based on the largest benefit that is more than 50% likely to be realized. If upon performance of an assessment pursuant to this subtopic, management determines that uncertainties in tax positions exist that do not meet the minimum threshold for recognition of the related tax benefit, a liability is recorded in the condensed consolidated financial statements. The Company recognizes interest and penalties, if any, related to unrecognized tax benefits as general, administrative and other expenses in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. Refer to Note 15, “Income Taxes” for additional information.
Other than BIGRM and Bridge PM, Inc. (“BPM”), the Operating Company and its subsidiaries are limited liability companies and partnerships, as such, are not subject to income taxes; the individual members of the Operating Company are required to report their distributive share of the Operating Company’s realized income, gains, losses, deductions, or credits on their individual income tax returns.
Tax Receivable Agreement — In connection with the IPO, the Company entered into a TRA with the Operating Company and each of the Continuing Equity Owners that provides for the payment by the Company to the Continuing Equity Owners of 85% of the amount of tax benefits, if any, that the Company actually realizes (or in some circumstances is deemed to realize) as a result of (1) increases in the Company’s allocable share of the tax basis of the Operating Company’s assets resulting from (a) the Company’s purchase of Class A Units directly from the Operating Company and the partial redemption of Class A Units by the Operating Company in connection with the IPO, (b) future redemptions or exchanges (or deemed exchanges in certain circumstances) of Class A Units for our Class A common stock or cash and (c) certain distributions (or deemed distributions) by the Operating Company; (2) the Company’s allocable share of the existing tax basis of the Operating Company’s assets at the time of any redemption or exchange of Class A Units (including in connection with the IPO), which tax basis is allocated to the Class A Units being redeemed or exchanged and acquired by the Company and (3) certain additional tax benefits arising from payments made under the TRA. The Company will retain the benefit of the remaining 15% of these net cash tax savings under the TRA.
Segments Segments — The Company operates as one business, a fully integrated real estate investment manager. The Company’s chief operating decision maker, which is the executive chairman, utilizes a consolidated approach to assess financial performance and allocate resources. As such, the Company operates as one business segment.
Earnings Per Share
Earnings Per Share Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing net income available to our Class A common stockholders by the weighted-average number of our Class A common shares outstanding for the period.
Diluted earnings per share of our Class A common stock is computed by dividing net income available to our Class A common stockholders after giving consideration to the reallocation of net income between holders of our Class A common stock and non-controlling interests, by the weighted-average number of shares of our Class A common stock outstanding during the period adjusted to give effect to potentially dilutive securities, if any. Potentially dilutive securities include unvested Restricted Stock Awards, RSUs, and Class A Units exchangeable on a one-for-one basis with shares of our Class A common stock. The effect of potentially dilutive securities is reflected in diluted earnings per share of our Class A common stock using the more dilutive result of the treasury stock method or the two-class method.
Unvested share-based payment awards, including Restricted Stock Awards and RSUs, that contain non-forfeitable rights to dividends (whether paid or unpaid) are participating securities. Outstanding Class A Units are also considered participating securities. As a result of being participating securities, Restricted Stock Awards, RSUs and Class A Units are considered in the computation of earnings per share of our Class A common stock pursuant to the two-class method.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments — Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016-13”), which has subsequently been amended. The amended guidance requires a company to measure all expected credit losses for financial assets held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. Prior to ASU 2016-13, GAAP required an “incurred loss” methodology that delayed recognition until it was probable a loss had been incurred. Under ASU 2016-13, the allowance for credit losses must be deducted from the amortized cost of the financial asset to present the net amount expected to be collected and the income statement will reflect the measurement of credit losses for newly recognized financial assets as well as the expected increases or decreases of expected credit losses that have taken place during the period. Financial instruments measured at fair value are not within the scope of this guidance. The guidance was effective for the Company on January 1, 2023, and was adopted using a modified retrospective transition method. The adoption of ASU 2016-13 did not have a material impact on the condensed consolidated financial statements of the Company.